Jayanta Kumar Basak
Farmgate, Dhaka 1215
Unnayan Onneshan, Farmgate, Dhaka 1215, Bangladesh
Rashed Al Mahmud Titumir
Unnayan Onneshan, Farmgate, Dhaka 1215, Bangladesh
Jiban Krishna Biswas
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh
M Ashraf Ali
Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
Land fragmentation is one of the key issues for agriculture in Bangladesh where major part of the yield productivity depends on the land pattern, shape, size, soil fertility etc. Various land use patterns and dynamic land ownership, various harmful changes are being taken place over agricultural land. This study has been conducted, based on the field data collected from the northern region in Bangladesh. It has focused on changing pattern of land ownership during 1984 to 2005. Land fragmentation into small plots makes mechanization inefficient, particularly, the use of power tillers and tractors, because of the form and dimensions of the plots. Analysis on land value and rice yield in local market price has revealed that 70 m2 land was lost per hectare, which is counted 0.7% for each hectare and on average about 2 Kg rice yield was lost per meter square of border (ail) for a single growing season. The study also showed that fuel cost for power tiller operation increased up to Tk 0.36 per decimal, while the plot size was 8.35 decimal compared to 66.8 decimal and labour cost increased more than 70% for the two sizes of plots. From this study, it has also been found that more than 33% labour cost increased due to plow land by country plough and 67% for leveling, which has a significant negative impact on total production cost. Ninety-six percent of the respondents of this study believe that population is the main cause of land fragmentation. Therefore, proper management and planned use of agricultural land are very essential for increasing population and providing sufficient food to meet their demand.
Bangladesh, Land fragmentation, Rice,Yield
Badalgachhi upazila of Naogaon district
Socio-economic and Policy
To investigate the main causes and effects of land fragmentation on rice yield, machine and labour productivity in Bangladesh.
Selection of study area The study was carried out in Badalgachhi upazila of Naogaon district which was chosen purposively because of its suitability for the crop production according to the following environmental criteria: topography, ecology, land use, intensity of crop production, and amount of land per capita. 1 Unnayan Onneshan, Farmgate, Dhaka 1215, Bangladesh. 2 Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh. 3 Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Data collection Both primary and secondary data were used in this study. Primary data were cross-section data, which was generated by conducting sample survey as well as experimental test at the farmers’ field. In turn, secondary data were compiled from Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) and Directorate of Agricultural Extension (DAE). However, a field survey was conducted among 50 respondents having the plot size of 5.01 and 66.80 decimal in finding out the main causes of land fragmentation for the aforesaid area. Furthermore, secondary data on land ownership and cultivable land were also used to identify the dynamic pattern of cultivable land. To assess the impacts of land fragmentation on plowing and reduction of rice production, field experiment was conducted on different sizes of plots from 5.01 to 66.80 decimal during Rabi season (15 November to 16 April 2010). The plots sizes were chosen based upon the maximum and minimum size of areas of plots available in the study areas. Measuring techniques Descriptive statistical techniques were applied in order to analyze the collected data. Measuring tape was used to measure the plot size as well as the area of border (ail) while oil measuring stick was used to quantify the oil requirement of power tiller in land preparation.
BANGLADESH RICE JOURNAL 16(1):77-86,June 2012, (Bangladesh Rice J.) ISSN 1025-7330
The proper management and planned use of agricultural land are very essential for increasing population and providing sufficient food to meet their demand. Agricultural land will not be increased with increasing population. Land use consequence is very important in the present context of Bangladesh. In every year, huge amount of agricultural lands are being lost due to land fragmentation for huge population growth, growing different types of crop in a same plot to meet their minimum food nutrient on their small land, changed cropping pattern and land ownership and also the impacts of natural disasters like floods, sea level rise, etc. We found that population growth is the main cause of land fragmentation in Bangladesh and the second is to grow different types of crops in a same plot. Therefore, the first and foremost work is to reduce the land fragmentation and for this reason, it is necessary to reduce the huge population pressure on cultivable land. Moreover, in rural Bangladesh farmers are subdividing their plots into two or more plots for proper irrigation practice in their fields and maintain a equal irrigation water level. It is even found that a small agriculture plots below 11.69 decimal are subdivided into two or more plots. As a result it increased the production cost on the total production system significantly. Additional productive time, fuel and labour are required for small plot, which is counted and it is considerably higher compared to a large plot. Therefore, government of Bangladesh must be determined to carry out its policy of modernization of land management to make it rational, effective and efficient. Government must be ensured to rationalize land management to increase productivity and to ensure optimum utilization of agriculture land. It also helps optimal use of land for higher productivity where sustainable agriculture production and food security become intertwined. Above all, public awareness of the impact of land fragmentation on agricultural production deserves priority.